Periodontal disease otherwise called the disease of the gum is triggered by the build-up of bacterial plaque in between the teeth and the gum. As soon as the bacteria replicate, the gums around the teeth can be affected and swollen.
If this inflammation is left unattended to, it can affect the structure of the bone and gums. This can also cause tooth damage and gum recession. Furthermore, dental research has revealed that gum disease is related toheart problems and diabetes. Periodontal disease includes a group of severe and prolonged conditions recognized by swelling of the periodontal tissues because of dental plaque.
Majority of the affected people can prevent periodontal disease by inculcating proper oral hygiene. Many elements increase the likelihood of a patient having periodontal disease. Out of these factors, diabetes and smoking are the most important risk factors. Smoking disrupts healing process, decreases gingival blood and escalates the production of inflammation-causing cytokines. Thus, patients that smoke find it difficult and sometimes impossible to respond to treatment for periodontal disease when compared with non-smokers. They are also very likely to permanently lose their teeth sooner.
Another group of people susceptible to periodontal disease are diabetes patients. Diabetes when not properly treated increases the risk of periodontal disease. Diabetes also makes the treatment process more complicated and has an adverse effect on the healing process. According to experts in the medical field, there exists a connection between cardiovascular disease and periodontal disease. Family history can also predispose a person to the growth of periodontal disease. Other predisposing factors for periodontal disease are rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diet, stress and osteoporosis.
Prevention of Periodontal disease
Even though there are several means tohandling periodontal disease, the importance of preventive tactics cannot be overestimated. Moderate periodontitis is common in a majority of smokers and this implies that smoking termination is an important preventive method for periodontal disease patients.Avoiding smoke totally also seems to be significant in preventing Periodontal disease. Medical researchers havediscovered that environmental tobacco smoke is more than twice as likely to cause periodontal disease, as were people with negligible exposure. People who smoke should be asked to stop smoking and patients at the risk of periodontal disease should totallycircumvent environmental exposure to tobacco smoke.
Other measures that may help prevent periodontal disease include brushing the teeth at least twice a day, avoidance of sweet foods, beverages and alcohol, use of a soft bristle brush and fluoridated toothpaste and daily flossing. It should also be noted that brushing consistently has been linked with reduced periodontal swelling which eventually leads to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Physicians should advise patients to minimize the use of medications with oral side effects, receive dental care bi-annually and help patients gain access to care.
Daily flossing andbrushing combined with regular visits for expertteeth cleaning would help prevent periodontal disease or allow you to treat it during the initial stages. The prognosis is good if the disease is recognized early and treated aggressively. Once there is a bone loss, the prognosis depends on the extent of the loss. Quitting smoking is very imperative to the success of periodontal treatment. Permanent maintenance will be necessary once the infection is controlled.
Treatment of periodontal disease
Treatment of periodontal diseasedepends on the extent of thedisease. Physicianscategorize the disease as mild, moderate, or severe.
Mild periodontitis is typically treated first with a comprehensive cleaning called root flattening and scaling. This process removes the calculus or plaque deposited on the gum line and crown of the teeth. This is carried out for two main purposes; namely to get rid of plaques and to smoothen the teeth roots in other to keep out bacteria. Combined with proper oral hygiene, this is a very effective treatment.
Moderate periodontitis requires more than root flattening and scaling. The dentist has to scale and plane the teeth. If this doesn’t solve the problem, surgical treatment might be required to reshape the gums to fit the teeth.
Severe periodontitis is the most critical stage at which tooth loss is very likely. Here, surgery is the only solution.
Irrespective of the treatment the patient chooses to undergo, it is necessary to inculcate consistent brushing and flossing to restore the teeth to perfect condition.